49棋牌app

SERVICE

SERVICE

LUBRICATION

1 Purposes of Lubrication

The main purposes of lubrication are to reduce friction and wear inside the bearings that may cause premature failure. The effects of lubrication may be briefly explained as follows:

49棋牌app (1) Reduction of Friction and Wear

Direct metallic contact between the bearing rings, rolling elements and cage, rolling elements and cage, which are the basic components of a bearing, is prevented by an oil film which reduces the friction and wear in the contact areas.

(2) Extension of Fatigue Life

49棋牌app The rolling fatigue life of bearings depends greatly upon the viscosity and film thickness between the rolling contact surfaces. A heavy film thickness prolongs the fatigue life, but it is shortened if the viscosity of the oil is too low so the film thickness is insufficient.

(3) Dissipation of Friction Heat and Cooling

Circulation lubrication may be used to carry away frictional heat or heat transferred from the outside to prevent the bearing from overheating and the oil from deteriorating.

(4) Others

Adequate lubrication also helps to prevent foreign material from entering the bearings and guards against corrosion or rusting.


2 Lubricating Methods

The various lubricating methods are first divided into either grease or oil lubrication. Satisfactory bearing performance can be achieved by adopting the lubricating method which is most suitable for the particular application and operating condition.

49棋牌app In general, oil offers superior lubrication. However, grease lubrication allows a simpler structure around the bearings. A comparison of grease and oil lubrication is given in Table 1.

Table 1 Comparison of Grease and Oil Lubrication

Item

49棋牌app Grease Lubrication

49棋牌app Oil Lubrication

49棋牌app Housing Structure and Sealing Method

Simple

May be complex, Careful maintenance required.

Speed

49棋牌app Limiting speed is 65% to 80% of that with oil lubrication.

Higher limiting speed.

Cooling Effect

49棋牌app Poor

Heat transter is possible using forced oil circulation.

Fluidity

Poor

49棋牌app Good

49棋牌app Full Lubricant Replacement

49棋牌app Sometimes difficult

Easy

Removal of Foreign Matter

Removal of particles from grease is impossible.

49棋牌app Easy

External Contamination due to Leakage

Surroundings seldom contaminated by leakage.

49棋牌app Often leaks without proper countermeasures. Not suitable if external contamination must be avoided.


2.1 Grease Lubrication

(1) Grease Quantity

The quantity of grease to be packed in a housing depends on the housing design and free space, grease characteristics, and ambient temperature. For example, the bearings for the main shafts of machine tools, where the accuracy may be impaired by a small temperature rise, require only a small amount of grease. The quantity of grease for ordinary bearings is determined as follows.

49棋牌app Sufficient grease must be packed inside the bearing including the cage guide face. The available space inside the housing to be packed with grease depends on the speeds as follows:

1/2 to 2/3 of the space---When the speed is less than 50% of the limiting speed.

1/3 to 1/2 of the space---When the speed is more than 50% of the limiting speed.

49棋牌app (2) Replacement of Grease

Grease, once packed, usually need not be replenished for a long time; however, for severe operating conditions, grease should be frequently replenished or replaced. In such cases, the bearing housing should be designed to facilitate grease replenishment and replacement.

When replenishment intervals are short, provide replenishment and discharge ports at appropriate positions so deteriorated grease is replaced by fresh grease. For example, the housing space on the grease supply side can be divided into several sections with partitions. The grease on the partitioned side gradually passes through the bearing and old grease forced from the bearing is discharged through a grease valve(Fig. 1). If a grease valve is not used, the space on the discharge side is mage larger than the partitioned side so it can retain the old grease, which is removed periodically by removing the cover.

Fig. 1Application Exampleof Partitioned Grease Reservoir

(3) Replenishing Interval

Even if high-quality grease is used, there is deterioration of its properties with time; therefore, periodic replenishment is required. Figs 2 (1) and (2) show the replenishment time intervals for various bearing types running at different speeds. Figs. 2 (1) and (2) apply for the condition of high-quality lithium soap-mineral oil grease, bearing temperature of 70℃, and normal load (P/C=0.1).

a. Temperature

If the bearing temperature exceeds 70℃, the replenishment time interval must be reduced by half for every 15℃ temperature rise of the bearings.

49棋牌app b. Grease

In case of ball bearings especially, the replenishing time interval can be extended depending on used grease type. (For example, high-quality lithium soap-synthetic oil grease may extend about two times of replenishing time interval shown in Fig. 2 (1). If the temperature of the bearings is less than 70℃, the usage of lithium soap-mineral oil grease or lithium soap-synthetic oil grease is appropriate.)

It is advisable to consult KMR.

Fig. 2 Grease Replenishment Intervals


2.2 Oil Lubrication

(1) Oil Bath Lubrication

Oil bath lubrication is a widely used with low or medium speeds. The oil should be at the center of the lowest rolling element. It is desirable to provide a sight gauge so the proper oil level may be maintained (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4Application Exampleof Oil Bath Lubrication


49棋牌app (2) Drip-Feed Lubrication

49棋牌app Drip feed lubrication is widely used for small ball bearings operated at relatively high speeds. As shown in Fig. 5, oil is stored in a visible oiler. The oil drip rate is controlled with the screw in the top.

Fig. 5Application Exampleof Drip Feed Lubrication


49棋牌app (3) Splash Lubrication

49棋牌app With this lubricating method, oil is splashed onto the bearings by gears or a simple rotating disc installed near bearings without submerging the bearings in oil. It is commonly used in automobile transmissions and final drive gears. Fig. 6 shows this lubricating method used on a reduction gear.

Fig. 6Application Exampleof Splash Lubrication



(4) Circulating Lubrication

Circulating lubrication is commonly used for high speed operation requiring bearing cooling and for bearing used at high temperatures. As shown in Fig. 7 (a), oil is supplied by the pipe on the right side, it travels through the bearing, and drains out through the pipe on the left. After being cooled in a reservoir, it returns to the bearing through a pump and filter.

The oil discharge pipe should be larger than the supply pipe so an excessive amount of oil will not back up in the housing.

Fig. 7Application Exampleof Circulating Lubrication



49棋牌app (5) Jet Lubrication

Jet lubrication is often used for ultra high speed bearings, such as the bearing in jet engines with admnvalve (dm: pitch diameter of rolling element set in mm;n: rotational speed in min-1)exceeding one million. Lubricating oil is sprayed under pressure from one or more nozzles directly into the bearing. Fig. 8 shows an example of ordinary jet lubrication. The lubricating oil is sprayed on the inner ring and cage guide face. In the case of high speed operation, the air surrounding the bearing rotates with it causing the oil jet to be deflected. The jetting speed of the oil from the nozzle should be more than 20% of the circumferential speed of the inner ring outer surface. More uniform cooling and a better temperature distribution is achieved using more nozzles for a given amount of oil. It is desirable for the oil to be forcibly discharged so the agitating resistance of the lubricant can be reduced and the oil can effectively carry away the heat.

Fig. 8 Application ExampleofJet Lubrication


49棋牌app (6) Oil Mist Lubrication

49棋牌app Oil mist lubrication, also called oil fog lubrication, utilizes an oil mist sprayed into a bearing. This method has the following advantages:

(a) Because of the small quantity of oil required, the oil agitation resistance is small, and higher speeds are possible.

49棋牌app (b) Contamination of the vicinity around the bearing is slight because the oil leakage is small.

49棋牌app (c) It is relatively easy to continuously supply fresh oil; therefore, the bearing life is extended.

This lubricating method is used in bearing for the high speed spindles of machine tools, high speed pumps, roll necks of rolling mills, etc.

Fig. 9Application ExampleofOil Mist Lubrication


(7) Oil/Air Lubricating Method

Using the oil/air lubricating method, a very small amount of oil is discharged intermittently by a constant-quantity piston into a pipe carrying a constant flow of compressed air. The oil flows along the wall of the pipe and approaches a constant flow rate.

The major advantages of oil/air lubrication are:

49棋牌app (a) Since the minimum necessary amount of oil is supplied, this method is suitable for high speeds because less heat is generated.

49棋牌app (b) Since the minimum amount of oil is fed continuously, bearing temperature remains stable. Also, because of the small amount of oil, there is almost no atmospheric pollution.

(c) Since only fresh oil is fed to the bearings, oil deterioration need not be considered.

49棋牌app (d) Since compressed air is always fed to the bearings, the internal pressure is high, so dust, cutting fluid, etc. cannot enter.

For these reasons, this method is used in the main spindles of machine tools and other high speed applications (Fig. 10).


Fig. 10 Application ExampleofOil/Air Lubricaton











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